Troubleshooting Active Directory Replication Issues (PowerShell Guide)

There are certain windows cmdlets and utilities which we can use for replication issues troubleshooting purpose. Among those, Repadmin.exe is most commonly used Microsoft utility. This is available in servers which have AD DS or AD LDS role installed. It is also part of Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT). This utility recommended to run as Domain Administrator or Enterprise Administrator. However, it is also possible to delegate permission only to review and manage replication. 

Let’s see it’s in action 

repadmin /replsummary /bydest

above command summarizes the replication status for all domain controllers based on the replication destination. This parameter does not display the source domain controller.

repadmin /replsummary /bysrc

above command summarizes the replication status for all domain controllers based on the replication source. This parameter does not display the destination domain controller.

repadmin /showrepl REBEL-SRV01.therebeladmin.com 

above command shows the replication partners for REBEL-SRV01.therebeladmin.com and the status of last sync attempt. 

repadmin /showrepl /errorsonly 

above command will list down the replication partners which have replication errors (last sync attempt failed) 

we also can view results in CSV format.

repadmin /showrepl /csv

tr1

repadmin /syncall REBEL-SRV01 dc=therebeladmin,dc=com

above command initiates domain directory partition synchronization with all replication partners of REBEL-SRV01. 

It will also indicate if there were any issues by doing it.

tr2

repadmin /queue

above command shows if there are any unprocessed inbound replications requests. If system keep que requests it can be due to high number of AD changes, System resource issue or too many replication partners. 

repadmin /showchanges REBELNET-PDC01 d3f89917-5fff-40a8-scc2-b148b60d9309 dc=therebeladmin,dc=com

above command list down the changes which are not replicated between server REBELNET-PDC01 and REBEL-SRV01. In here REBEL-SRV01 is the source server and it is listed with object GUID. 

tr3

repadmin /replicate REBEL-SRV01 REBELNET-PDC01 dc=therebeladmin,dc=com

above command initiate immediate directory partition replication from REBELNET-PDC01 to REBEL-SRV01.

Apart from the repadmin, there are certain PowerShell cmdlets which we can use to troubleshoot replication issues. Get-ADReplicationFailure cmdlet is one of those which can collect data about replication failures. 

Get-ADReplicationFailure -Target REBEL-SRV01

Above command will collect information about replication failures associated with REBEL-SRV01. 

This also can do with multiple servers. 

Get-ADReplicationFailure -Target REBEL-SRV01,REBELNET-PDC01

Further we can target all the domain controllers in the domain.

Get-ADReplicationFailure -Target "therebeladmin.com" -Scope Domain

Or even entire forest

Get-ADReplicationFailure -Target " therebeladmin.com" -Scope Forest

Get-ADReplicationConnection cmdlet can list down replication partner details for the given domain controller. 

Get-ADReplicationConnection -Filter *

Above command will list down all replication connection for the domain controller you logged in. 

tr4

We also can filter the replication connections based on the attributes. 

Get-ADReplicationConnection -Filter {ReplicateToDirectoryServer -eq "REBEL-SRV01"}

Above command will list down the replication connections with destination server as REBEL-SRV01.

We also can force sync object between domain controllers. 

Sync-ADObject -object “adam” -source REBEL-SRV01 -destination REBELNET-PDC01

Above command will sync user object adam from REBEL-SRV01 to REBELNET-PDC01

This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.

Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter

How to Seize FSMO Roles? (PowerShell Guide)

In AD environment, FSMO role seize process only should use in a disaster where you cannot recover the FSMO role holder. It should be using for day to day operations. Some of the FSMO roles (RID, Domain Naming Master, Schema Master) can still afford few hours’ downtime with minimum business impacts. There for do not use the Seize option as the first option if still FSMO role holder can recover or fix. 

Once seize process is completed, the old FSMO role holder should not bring online again. It is recommended to format and remove it from network. In any given time, it is not possible to have same FSMO role appear in two servers in same domain.

In following example, there are two domain controllers in the infrastructure. REBEL-SDC02 is the FSMO role holder and REBEL-PDC-01 is additional domain controller. Due to hardware failure, I cannot bring REBEL-SDC02 online and I need to seize the FSMO roles. 

s1

In order to seize the roles following command can use,

Move-ADDirectoryServerOperationMasterRole -Identity REBEL-PDC-01 -OperationMasterRole SchemaMaster, DomainNamingMaster, PDCEmulator, RIDMaster, InfrastructureMaster -Force

s2

This command will take few minutes to complete as in background it will try to connect to original FSMO role holder. 

The only change in the command from FSMO role transfer is the -Force at the end. Otherwise its exact same command. You also can seize individual role by using Move-ADDirectoryServerOperationMasterRole -Identity REBEL-PDC-01 -OperationMasterRole <FSMO Role> -Force

In their <FSMO Role> can be replaced by the actual FSMO role value.

Once command completed we can test the new FSMO role holder. 

s3

As we can see REBEL-PDC-01 become the new FSMO role holder. 

This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.

Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter

How to Enable Active Directory Recycle Bin? (PowerShell Guide)

Most common active directory related disasters are due to accidently deleted objects. Once object is deleted from active directory, it is not permanently deleteing from the active directory same time. As soon as an object deleted, it will set the isDeleted object value to True and move the object under CN=Deleted Object.

re1

Then the it is stay there till system reaches the tombstone lifetime value. By default, it is 180 days and this can be change if required. As soon as object passes the tombstone lifetime, it is available for permanent deletion. When I explain about the active directory database in previous section I mentioned about “online defragmentation”. It is uses garbage collector service to remove the deleted objects from the active directory database and release that space to database. This service runs in every 12 hours’ time. Once deleted object exceeded the tombstone lifetime value, it will be permanently removed in next garbage collector service cycle. the problem with this one is, during the tombstone process most of the object values are striped off. So even you were able to recover, these objects values will need to re-enter. 

With windows server 2008 R2, Microsoft introduced Active Directory Recycle Bin feature. When this feature is enabled, once object is deleted, it’s still set isDeleted object value to True and move the object under CN=Deleted Object. but instead of tombstone lifetime, now its control by Deleted Object Lifetime (DOL). Object attributes will remain same in this stage and it is recoverable easily. By default, the DOL value is equal to tombstone lifetime. This value can change by modifying msDS-deletedObjectLifetime object value. Once its exceeded the DOL, it is moved in to Recycled state and isRecycled object value set to True. By this state, it will not be able to recovered and it will be in that state till tombstone lifetime value exceed. After it reach the value it will be permanently delete from the AD. 

Active Directory Recycle Bin feature required minimum of windows server 2008 R2 domain and forest functional level. Once this feature is enabled it cannot be disabled. 

This feature can be enable using,

Enable-ADOptionalFeature 'Recycle Bin Feature' -Scope ForestOrConfigurationSet -Target rebeladmin.com

In above -Target can be change with your domain name. 

re2

Once it is enabled, we can revive the objects which is deleted using,

Get-ADObject -filter 'isdeleted -eq $true' -includeDeletedObjects

It will search for the objects where isdeleted attributes set to true. 

Now we know the deleted object and it can be restore using, 

Get-ADObject -Filter 'samaccountname -eq "dfrancis"' -IncludeDeletedObjects | Restore-ADObject

The above will restore user object dfrancis

re3

This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.

Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter

Find Active Directory Objects (PowerShell Guide)

Active Directory can hold near 2 billion objects. When the number of objects grows, the requirement for affective object filtering grows as well. Active Directory have several GUI options to search/filter specific objects. We also can filter objects using PowerShell. 

In previous posts, we learned about Get-ADUser and Get-ADComputer cmdlets and how it can be used with other commands to filter out objects from Active directory and perform administrative tasks.  It is also can use to retrieve specific attribute values from filtered objects. 

Get-ADUser -Identity user1 -Properties *

In above command, it will list down all the attributes and its values associated with user1. This helps to find exact attributes names and common values which can use for further filtering. 

I need to know values of Name, UserPrincipalName and Modified for all the users. Following command will create a table with attributes and its values. 

Get-ADUser -Filter * -Properties Name,UserPrincipalName,Modified | ft Name,UserPrincipalName,Modified

fobj01

I can see some accounts in the list which is service accounts and administrator account. I only want to see the accounts which is in Kingston office

Get-ADUser -Filter {City -like "Kingston"} -Properties Name,UserPrincipalName,Modified | ft Name,UserPrincipalName,Modified  

With above it filters it further based on the City value.

Now I have the list of data I needed, I like to export it to a CSV file for future use. 

Get-ADUser -Filter {City -like "Kingston"} -Properties Name,UserPrincipalName,Modified | select-object Name,UserPrincipalName,Modified | Export-csv -path C:\ADUSerList.csv

So, above example shows how search query can build up from granular level to find the exact information needed from objects. 

Search-ADAccount cmdlet can also use to search for the active directory objects based on account and password status. Full syntax for the cmdlet can retrieve using,

Get-Command Search-ADAccount -Syntax 

As an example, it can use to filter the accounts which is locked out. 

Search-ADAccount -LockedOut | FT Name,UserPrincipalName

Above command will list down all the lockout accounts with name and UPN

Unlikely the graphical tools, Powershell queries can build to filter the exact objects and data from active directory. 

This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.

Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter

Azure DDoS Protection Preview in Action

DDoS attacks are the most commonly using method by attackers against resources which can access via internet. It can be website or application. DDoS attack can crash or slowdown service or application by sending large amount of access requests in short period of time. This applies to public cloud as well. There for Microsoft recently released Azure DDoS protection service to protect workloads in azure from DDoS attacks. This is currently in preview but it is not too early to check its capabilities. 

This feature comes as two versions,

Basic – This comes as part of the Azure subscription without any additional cost. This is same level of real time monitoring and mitigation applies to Microsoft services. This is applying to Azure global network across all region. This applies to Azure IPv4 and IPv6 public ip addresses. 

Standard – This comes with additional traffic monitoring and machine leaning algorithms tunes specifically to protect Azure virtual networks resources such as azure application gateway, azure load balancer. Real time monitoring data is available via Azure Monitor. Users also can enable alerting for the events. Standard protection is coming with additional fee. This applies to Azure IPv4 public ip addresses.

According to Microsoft, under standard subscription following type of DDoS attacks will be prevented. 

Volumetric attacks: The attack's goal is to flood the network layer with a substantial amount of seemingly legitimate traffic. It includes UDP floods, amplification floods, and other spoofed-packet floods. DDoS Protection Standard mitigates these potential multi-gigabyte attacks by absorbing and scrubbing them, leveraging Azure’s global network scale, automatically.

Protocol attacks: These attacks render a target inaccessible by exploiting a weakness in the layer 3 and layer 4 protocol stack. It includes, SYN flood attacks, reflection attacks, and other protocol attacks. DDoS Protection Standard mitigates these attacks, differentiating between malicious and legitimate traffic, by interacting with the client and blocking malicious traffic.

Application layer attacks: These attacks target web application packets to disrupt the transmission of data between hosts. It includes HTTP protocol violations, SQL injection, cross-site scripting, and other layer 7 attacks. Use the Azure Application Gateway web application firewall, with DDoS Protection Standard, to provide defense against these attacks.

Also, Standard version features include,

Native platform integration: Natively integrated into Azure and includes configuration through the Azure portal and PowerShell. DDoS Protection Standard understands your resources and resource configuration.

Always-on traffic monitoring: Your application traffic patterns are monitored 24 hour a day, 7 days a week, looking for indicators of DDoS attacks. Mitigation is performed when protection policies are exceeded.

Turn-key protection: Simplified configuration immediately protects all resources on a virtual network as soon as DDoS Protection Standard is enabled. No intervention or user definition is required. DDoS Protection Standard instantly and automatically mitigates the attack, once it is detected.

Adaptive tuning: Intelligent traffic profiling learns your application’s traffic over time, and selects and updates the profile that is the most suitable for your service. The profile adjusts as traffic changes over time.

Layer 3 to layer 7 protection: Provides full stack DDoS protection, when used with an application gateway.

Extensive mitigation scale: Over 60 different attack types can be mitigated, with global capacity, to protect against the largest known DDoS attacks.

Attack metrics: Summarized metrics from each attack are accessible through Azure Monitor.

Attack alerting: Alerts can be configured at the start and stop of an attack, and over the attack’s duration, using built-in attack metrics. Alerts integrate into your operational software like Microsoft Operations Management Suite, Splunk, Azure Storage, Email, and the Azure portal.

Cost guarantee: Data-transfer and application scale-out service credits for documented DDoS attacks.

Let’s see how we can get this feature enable and configure. 

In order to enable Azure DDoS Protection Preview service, first you need to request it using http://aka.ms/ddosprotection . This feature also only available for East US, East US 2, West US, West Central US, North Europe, West Europe, Japan West, Japan East, East Asia, and Southeast Asia regions.

Enable DDoS Protection Standard Preview in Existing Virtual Network 
 
1. Once you receive the confirmation email from Azure team, log in to Azure portal https://portal.azure.com as global administrator.
2. Then go to Virtual Networks and click on the Virtual Network that you like to enable DDoS protection. 
 
ddos1
 
3. Then in properties window click on DDoS protection option. 
 
ddos2
 
4. In next window, click on Enabled and then click on Save to enable the feature. 
 
ddos3

Enable DDoS Protection Standard Preview in New Virtual Network
 
1. Once you receive the confirmation email from Azure team, log in to Azure portal https://portal.azure.com as global administrator.
2. Then go to Virtual Networks and click on Add
 
ddos4
 
3. In new page, provide relevant info for virtual network, select a region which support by DDoS feature and then click on Enabled under DDoS protection.
 
ddos5
 
4. At the end click on Create to complete the process. 
 
DDoS Monitoring 
 
Using Monitoring metrics, we can review historical DDoS threat related data for selected resources. Also, we can configure email alerts for events. 
In order to do so,
 
1. Log in to Azure portal https://portal.azure.com as global administrator.
2. Then go to Metrics | Monitor
 
ddos6
 
3. In the page select the relevant subscription, resource group, resource type and resource to view the relevant data. 
 
ddos7
 
4. Then under the available metrics you can select the metrics you like to review. In my demo I am going to use Under DDoS attack or not metric which going to show all the data. 
 
ddos8
 
5. Then it will show the relevant metrics. Using Time Range window, we can change the time and review specific data sets. 
 
ddos9
 
6. Using Char Type option we can change the view of the chart. 
 
ddos10
 
7. In order to configure alerts, click on No alerts configured for this resource. Click to add an alert option
 
ddos11
 
8. Then it opens up window where you can customize metric type, condition, threshold and notification type. 
 
ddos12
 
As you can see the setup, configuration and maintenance of Azure DDoS Protection is straightforward. This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.
Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter

Active Directory Managed Service Accounts (PowerShell Guide)

Services Accounts are recommended to use when install application or services in infrastructure. It is dedicated account with specific privileges which use to run services, batch jobs, management tasks. In most of the infrastructures, service accounts are typical user accounts with “Password never expire” option. Since these service accounts are not been use regularly, Administrators have to keep track of these accounts and their credentials. I have seen in many occasions where engineers face in to issues due to outdated or misplace service account credential details. Pain of it is, if you reset the password of service accounts, you will need to update services, databases, application settings to get application or services up and running again. Apart from it Engineers also have to manage service principle names (SPN) which helps to identify service instance uniquely. 

After considering all these challenges Microsoft has introduced Managed Service Accounts with windows server 2008 R2. These accounts got following features and limitations,

No more password management. It uses a complex, random, 240-character password and change that automatically when it reaches the domain or computer password expire date.

It cannot be lock out or use for interactive login. 

One managed service account only can use in one computer. it cannot be share between multiple computers

Simplified SPN Management – System will automatically change the SPN value if sAMaccount details of the computer change or DNS name property change. 

In order to create Managed service account, we can use following command, I am running this from the domain controller.

New-ADServiceAccount -Name "MyAcc1" -RestrictToSingleComputer

In above command I am creating service account called MyAcc1 and I am restricting it to one computer. 

Next step is associate the service account with the Host REBEL-SRV01 where I am going to use this service account. 

Add-ADComputerServiceAccount -Identity REBEL-SRV01 -ServiceAccount "MyAcc1"

Next step is to install service account in the REBEL-SRV01 server. We need active directory PowerShell module for this. We can install it using RSAT tools. Once its ready run the command,

Install-ADServiceAccount -Identity "MyAcc1"

Once it’s done, we can test it using,

Test-ADServiceAccount "MyAcc1"

It is return the value True which means the test is successful. 

msa1
 
From active directory server, we can verify the service account by running
 
Get-ADServiceAccount "MyAcc1"
 
msa2
 
Tip – When configure the Manager service account in service make sure to leave the password as empty. You do not need to define any password there as system auto generate the password. 
 
This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.
Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter

Manage Active Directory Organizational Units (OU) with PowerShell

Similar to any other active directory object, OU structure can manage using Active Directory Administrative Center (ADAC), Active Directory Users and Computers (ADUC) MMC and PowerShell. In this post, I am going to demonstrate how to manage OU structure using PowerShell. 

New Organization Unit can create using New-ADOrganizationalUnit cmdlet. The complete syntax can review using,

Get-Command New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Syntax

As the first step, I am going to create new OU called “Asia” to represent Asia Branch. 

New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Asia" -Description "Asia Branch"

In above command -Description defines description for new OU. When there is no path defined, it will create the OU under the root. We can review the details of the new OU using,

Get-ADOrganizationalUnit -Identity “OU=Asia,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com”

oup1

We can add/change values of OU attributes using, 

Get-ADOrganizationalUnit -Identity “OU=Asia,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com” | Set-ADOrganizationalUnit -ManagedBy “Asia IT Team”

Above command will set ManagedBy Attribute to “Asia IT Team”

Tip – When you use ManagedBy attribute, make sure to use existing active directory object for the value. It can be individual user object or group object. If not, command will fail. 

 “Protect from Accidental Deletion” for OU object is nice small safe guard we can apply. It will prevent Accidental OU object deletion. This will be apply by default if you create OU using ADAC or ADUC. 

Get-ADOrganizationalUnit -Identity “OU=Asia,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com” | Set-ADOrganizationalUnit -ProtectedFromAccidentalDeletion $true

As the next step, I am going to create Sub OU under Asia OU Called “Users”.

New-ADOrganizationalUnit -Name "Users" -Path “OU=Asia,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com” -Description “Users in Asia Branch” -ProtectedFromAccidentalDeletion $true

Above command will create OU called Users under path OU=Asia,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com. It is also protected from accidental deletion. 

Now we have OU structure created and next step is move objects to it. for that we can use Move-ADObject cmdlet. 

Get-ADUser “tuser3” | Move-ADObject -TargetPath “OU=Users,OU=Asia,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com”

Above command will find user “tuser3” and move object to OU=Users,OU=Asia,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com

We also can move multiple object to the new OU. 

Get-ADUser -Filter 'Name -like "Test*"' -SearchBase “OU=Users,OU=Europe,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com” | Move-ADObject -TargetPath “OU=Users,OU=Asia,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com”

In above command, It will first search all the user accounts what is starts with “Test” in OU=Users,OU=Europe,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com and then move all objects it found to new OU path. 

Tip – If you have ProtectedFromAccidentalDeletion enable on objects, it will not allow to move object to different OU. It need to remove before object move.

If we need to remove OU object it can be done using Remove-ADOrganizationalUnit cmdlet. 

Remove-ADOrganizationalUnit “OU=Laptops,OU=Europe,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com”

Above command will remove OU=Laptops,OU=Europe,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com Organization Unit. 

This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.

Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter

Create Active Directory User Objects using PowerShell

There are few ways to create user objects in Active Directory. If it’s using GUI, it can be done using Active Directory Administrative Center or Active Directory Users and Computers MMC. If it is using command line, it can be done using windows command-line or PowerShell. In this demo, I am going to show how we can create user object using PowerShell. 

In order to create user object in active directory we can use New-ADUser cmdlet in PowerShell. You can view the full syntax for the command along with the accepted data types using,

Get-Command New-ADUser -Syntax

In order to create a New User account using PowerShell the minimum value you need to pass is -Name. it will create a disabled user account and you still can define values for other attributes later. 

This is a sample which can use to create a user account,

New-ADUser -Name "Talib Idris" -GivenName "Talib" -Surname "Idris" -SamAccountName "tidris" -UserPrincipalName "tidris@rebeladmin.com" -Path "OU=Users,OU=Europe,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com" -AccountPassword(Read-Host -AsSecureString "Type Password for User") -Enabled $true

In the command,

Name – Defines the Full Name

Given Name – Defines the First Name

Surname – Defines the Surname

SamAccountName – Defines the User Name

UserPrincipalName – Defines the UPN for the user account

Path – Defines the OU path. The default location is “CN=Users,DC=rebeladmin,DC=com”

AccountPassword – This will allow user to input password for the user and system will convert it to the relevant data type

Enable – defines if the user account status is enabled or disabled. 

uadd1
 
You can create a user account with minimum attributes such as Name and UPN. Then later can define a password and enable the account. User account cannot enable without a password. To define password can use Set-ADAccountPassword -Identity cmdlet and to enable account can use Enable-ADAccount -Identity cmdlet. 
 
Instead of executing multiple commands to create multiple user objects, we can create a CSV (comma-separated values) file which include data for attributes and use it to create accounts in one go. 
 
In demo I am using following CSV file. 
 
uadd2

Import-Csv "C:\ADUsers.csv" | ForEach-Object {
$upn = $_.SamAccountName + “@rebeladmin.com” 
New-ADUser -Name $_.Name `
 -GivenName $_."GivenName" `
 -Surname $_."Surname" `
 -SamAccountName  $_."samAccountName" `
 -UserPrincipalName  $upn `
 -Path $_."Path" `
 -AccountPassword (ConvertTo-SecureString “Pa$$w0rd” -AsPlainText -force) -Enabled $true
}
 
In above script Import-Csv cmdlet used to import the CSV file created. I have defined parameter $upn = $_.SamAccountName + “@rebeladmin.com” to use for the  -UserPrincipalName value. In script, I have defined a common password for all the accounts using -AccountPassword (ConvertTo-SecureString “Pa$$w0rd” -AsPlainText -force) 
 
uadd3
 
This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.

Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter

Step-by-Step Migration Guide to Active Directory 2016 (PowerShell Guide)

This is my first blog post in 2018. So, first of all Happy New year to my blog readers!

In many occasions, I have written articles about Active Directory Migrations. But still I get lots of emails from readers to clarify things about AD migrations. So, I thought to revisit it by covering most common questions I gets. Also in this blog post, I will show how to do the AD migration only using PowerShell.

Migration task itself is very straight forward. But there are other things you need to consider before you do an AD migration. In below I listed a checklist you can use in many occasions. 

Active Directory Migration Check List 

Evaluate business requirement for active directory migration 

Perform Audit on Existing Active Directory Infrastructure to verify its health status

Create Plan for implementation Process

Prepare Physical / Virtual resources for Domain Controller

Install Windows server 2016 Standard / Datacenter

Patch Servers with latest Windows Updates

Assign Dedicate IP address to Domain Controller

Install AD DS Role

Migrate Application and Server Roles from the Existing Domain Controllers

Migrate FSMO roles to new Domain Controllers

Add New Domain controller to the Existing DR Solution

Decommission old domain controllers 

Raise the Domain and Forest Functional level

On Going Maintenance 

Tips – During audit process you need to verify if your applications will support new AD schema. it is very rare but I have seen legacy applications which is not support newer schema versions. 
 
Also in some scenarios, it is hard to replace primary dc with a DC running with different IP address. AD is supported for IP changes even after FSMO role changes. There for if need you can swap IP addresses after you migrate FSMO roles. 
 
Topology
 
In my demo environment, I have an existing domain controller running with windows server 2012 R2. I am going to migrate it to a windows server 2016 server.
 
mig1
 
In the demonstration, REBEL-WIN-DC01 is the domain controller with windows server 2012 R2 and REBEL-SDC01 is the domain controller with windows server 2016. 
 
Tip – When you introduce new domain controllers to the existing infrastructure it is recommended to introduce to the forest root level first and then go to the domain tree levels.
 
Add Additional Domain Control 
 
As per plan I need to add a new domain controller with windows server 2016 to existing domain first.
 
1) Log in to the Server (Windows server 2016) as a member of local administrators group. 
2) Add server to the existing domain as member. 
3) Log in to domain controller as enterprise administrator.  
4) Verify the static IP address allocation using ipconfig /all.
5) Launch the PowerShell Console as an Administrator
6) Before the configuration process, we need to install the AD DS Role in the given server. In order to do that we can use Following command. 

Install-WindowsFeature –Name AD-Domain-Services -IncludeManagementTools
 
7) After successful role service Installation, next step is to configure the domain controller. It can be done using following PowerShell command. 
 
Install-ADDSDomainController
-CreateDnsDelegation:$false
-InstallDns:$true
-DomainName "rebeladmin.com"
-SiteName "Default-First-Site-Name"
-ReplicationSourceDC "REBEL-WIN-DC01.rebeladmin.com"
-DatabasePath "C:\Windows\NTDS"
-LogPath "C:\Windows\NTDS"
-SysvolPath "C:\Windows\SYSVOL"
-Force:$true 


Argument

Description

Install-ADDSDomainController

This cmdlet will install the domain controller in active directory infrastructure.

-SiteName

This Parameter can use to define the active directory site name.  the default value is Default-First-Site-Name

-DomainName

This parameter defines the FQDN for the active directory domain.

-ReplicationSourceDC

Using this parameter can define the active directory replication source. By default, it will use any available domain controller. But if need we can be specific.

-InstallDns

Using this can specify whether DNS role need to install with active directory domain controller. For new forest, it is default requirement to set it to $true.

-LogPath

Log path can use to specify the location to save domain log files.

-SysvolPath

This is to define the SYSVOL folder path. Default location for it will be C:\Windows

-Force

This parameter will force command to execute by ignoring the warning. It is typical for the system to pass the warning about best practices and recommendations. 

 
Once execute the command it will ask for SafeModeAdministrator Password. Please use complex password to proceed. This will be used for DSRM.
 
After configuration completed, restart the system and log back in as administrator to check the AD DS status. 

Get-Service adws,kdc,netlogon,dns
 
Move FSMO Roles 
 
Now we have additional domain controller and next step is to migrate FSMO roles to the new server. 
 
We can migrate all five FSMO roles to the New domain controller using following powershell command,
 
Move-ADDirectoryServerOperationMasterRole -Identity REBEL-SDC01 -OperationMasterRole SchemaMaster, DomainNamingMaster, PDCEmulator, RIDMaster, InfrastructureMaster
 
In above the REBEL-SDC01 is domain controller running with windows server 2016. Once its completed, we can verify the new FSMO role holder using 
 
Netdom query fsmo
 
mig2

 
Decommission Old Domain Controller 
 
Now we moved FSMO roles over and next step is to decommission old DC which is running with windows server 2012 R2. 
In order to do that, log in to old DC as enterprise administrator and run following powershell command,

Uninstall-ADDSDomainController -DemoteOperationMasterRole -RemoveApplicationPartition
 
After execute the command it will ask to define password for the local administrator account.
 
mig3
 
Once its completed it will be a member server of the rebeladmin.com domain.
 
Raise Domain and Forest Functional level

After you remove your last domain controller running with windows server 2012 r2 (if its 2012 or 2008 r2 same thing apply) we can raise Domain and Forest Functional level to windows server 2016. You need it to have features comes with AD 2016. 
To upgrade domain functional level, you can use following powershell command
 
Set-ADDomainMode –identity rebeladmin.com -DomainMode Windows2016Domain
 
To upgrade forest function level, you can use following command

Set-ADForestMode -Identity rebeladmin.com -ForestMode Windows2016Forest
 
After the migration completes we still need to verify if its completes successfully.
 
Get-ADDomain | fl Name,DomainMode
 
This command will show the current Domain functional level of the domain after the migration. 
 
Get-ADForest | fl Name,ForestMode
 
Above command will show the current forest functional level of the domain. 
Also, you can use
 
Get-EventLog -LogName 'Directory Service' | where {$_.eventID -eq 2039 -or $_.eventID -eq 2040} | Format-List
 
To search event ID 2039 and 2040 in the “Directory Service” log which will show the forest and domain functional level updates.
 
mig4
 
Event ID 1458 will verify the transfer of the FSMO roles. 

Get-EventLog -LogName 'Directory Service' | where {$_.eventID -eq 1458} | Format-List
 
You can use following to verify the list of domain controllers and make sure the old domain controller is gone. 
 
Get-ADDomainController -Filter * | Format-Table Name, IPv4Address
 
Apart from these you also can go through Directory Service and DNS Logs to see if there’s any issues recorded.
 
This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.

Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter

Step-by-Step guide to connect down-level devices to Azure AD (in hybrid environment)

Devices runs with Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 can directly connect to Azure AD. I have used it on my last few posts and explain different features available for Domain Joined Devices. However not every device in an infrastructure runs with Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016. If it is cloud only environment, you can simply connect your VMs in Azure to Azure AD without issue. but if it is remote devices you do not have option than upgrading to windows 10 and windows 2016. In Hybrid Environment with some configuration changes, Azure AD allow to join devices runs with, 

Windows 8.1

Windows 7

Windows Server 2012 R2

Windows Server 2012

Windows Server 2008 R2

In this demo, I am going to explain how we can connect these down-level devices to Azure AD. 

If it is hybrid environment, it will be either federated or non-federated environment. In this post, I am only going to focus on non-federated environment. The configuration and prerequisites are different from one method to another. 

In non-federated environment, 

1. You must have healthy AD synchronization using Azure AD Connect
2. If you are using Seamless single sign-on with Azure AD Connect, it is still supported configuration. more info about it can find using http://www.rebeladmin.com/2017/09/azure-active-directory-seamless-single-sign-azure-ad-seamless-sso/ 
3. If down-level devices are using roaming profiles it is not going to work with Azure AD. In that case you need to move to Windows 10
4. You need to have Azure Global Administrator Account and Domain Admin Account to do the configuration changes. 

Create Service Connection Point 
 
First step of the configuration is to create service connection point (SCP) in local AD so devices can discover Azure AD tenant information during the registration process. 
In order do that we need to run following PowerShell script in Azure AD Connect server. 

Import-Module -Name "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Azure Active Directory Connect\AdPrep\AdSyncPrep.psm1";

$aadAdmin = Get-Credential;

Initialize-ADSyncDomainJoinedComputerSync –AdConnectorAccount [AD connector account] -AzureADCredentials $aadAdmin;
 
In above,
 
$aadAdmin – Parameter is to represent the Azure AD admin account used in the configuration. 
 
[AD connector account] – This should replace with the AD account used for Azure AD Sync
 
Note – 
This must run from the server you have AD Connect configured
It is recommended to run it from Microsoft Azure Active Directory Module for PowerShell tool. If you use it you do not need to import the module. 
You must have AD DS tools installed on the same server otherwise command will fail. 
 
Azurec1
 
Verify Service Connection Point Details
 
After you run the command successfully we can verify SCP using,

$scp = New-Object System.DirectoryServices.DirectoryEntry;

$scp.Path = "LDAP://CN=62a0ff2e-97b9-4513-943f-0d221bd30080,CN=Device Registration Configuration,CN=Services,CN=Configuration,DC=therebeladmin,DC=com";

$scp.Keywords;
 
In above DC=therebeladmin,DC=com represents the domain. 
 
If it was successful, you will get response like below. 
 
Azurec2
 
Allow Users to Join Devices to Azure AD
 
Before you joined the devices, first verify if you allow users to connect devices to Azure AD. 
To do that, 
 
1. Log in to Azure Portal
2. Go to Azure Active Directory 
3. Then Devices
 
Azurec3
 
4. Then click on Device Settings
 
Azurec4
 
5. Then the settings can find under, User may join devices to Azure AD option. In my demo setup, I am allowing all the users to join devices. 
 
Azurec5
 
Join down-level devices to Azure AD
 
Now we have all the prerequisites ready. Next step is to register device with Azure AD. In my demo, I have a VM which runs Windows 8.1. I am going to add it to Azure AD.
 
1. Log in to the Device as Administrator
 
 
Azurec6
 
3. Double click on the MSI after download and click on Install to proceed. 
 
Azurec7
 
Note – This VM is already part of the local domain. 
 
4. Then go to Start > Search > PC Settings after that click on Network 
 
Azurec8
 
5. The click on Workplace > Join
 
Azurec9
 
6. It will prompt for the login and provide the relevant password. 
 
Azurec10
 
7. After successful join, it will show following
 
Azurec11
 
8. Now I can see the device under Azure AD Devices. 
 
Azurec12
 
This marks the end of this blog post. Hope this was useful. If you have any questions feel free to contact me on rebeladm@live.com also follow me on twitter @rebeladm to get updates about new blog posts.

Share and Enjoy:
  • Print
  • Digg
  • del.icio.us
  • Facebook
  • Google Bookmarks
  • LinkedIn
  • Live
  • RSS
  • StumbleUpon
  • Twitter